Social Psychology Network

Maintained by Scott Plous, Wesleyan University

Len Berkowitz

Len Berkowitz

[Note: Professor Leonard Berkowitz died January 3, 2016, at the age of 89. Social Psychology Network is maintaining this profile for visitors who wish to learn more about Professor Berkowitz's work.]

Although retired, I am still trying to develop my analysis of the formation, operation, and regulation of emotional states, particularly anger. This formulation holds that particular feelings, ideas, memories, and expressive-motor reactions are linked together associatively in an emotion-state network. The activation of any one of these components through focal attention presumably activates the other components in the same network. In the case of anger, it is presumed that any unpleasant feeling will tend to activate rudimentary anger feelings as well as aggression-related ideas, memories, and expressive-motor reactions, theoretically because of a biologically determined association connecting negative affect with these components.

Primary Interests:

  • Aggression, Conflict, Peace
  • Emotion, Mood, Affect
  • Helping, Prosocial Behavior
  • Social Cognition


Journal Articles:

  • Anderson, C., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L. R., Johnson, J., Linz, D., Malamuth, N., & Wartella, E. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 81-110.
  • Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. American Psychologist.
  • Berkowitz, L. (1989). The frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59-73.
  • Berkowitz, L., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2004). Toward an understanding of the determinants of anger. Emotion, 4, 107-130.

Other Publications:

  • Berkowitz, L. (2003). Affect, aggression, and antisocial behavior. In R. Davidson, K. Scherer, & H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences (pp. 804-823). New York/Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

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